Материалы для подготовки к экзаменам для 11 класса

Готовимся к экзамену по истории Беларуси

Чтобы сдать экзамен, необходимо выучить 25 билетов, в каждом по три вопроса. Для ответа на первый нужно знать период от Древности до 1917 года, на второй — события от 1917 года до Новейшего времени. Задание для третьего пункта билета готовит школьный учитель истории. Оно может быть любой формы, но главная его цель — проверить умение школьника находить причинно-следственные связи в исторических событиях, раскрывать понятия и термины, анализировать исторические документы или характеризовать исторических личностей.

Хочу обратить внимание выпускников 11 класса на  сайт "Экзамен по истории Беларуси",  учителя истории О.В. Кравченко.

Внимательно изучите материал на представленном сайте. Сначала идет текст билета, а в конце каждого вопроса есть презентации и вспомогательный материал!!!



Готовимся к экзамену по английскому языку

Испытание проходит в устной форме. Его цель — проверить навыки общения на английском, которые ты приобрёл за время обучения в школе. Тебе предстоит пройти аудирование, беседу по прочитанному тексту и на предложенную тему. Последовательность этапов определяет комиссия. Каждый блок заданий оценивается отдельно, итоговая отметка выводится как среднее арифметическое.





№ 1

  1. 1. Read the newspaper opinion column and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Are you proud of being Belarusian?


I am Belarusian because my parents who gave me life and brought me up are Belarusian. And what if I were born in a different country on a different continent? In my opinion, a sense of pride in your country, a sense of belonging to a particular nation develops in a person with time. Therefore at my age, by the way I am 18, I can say quite positively, that I am proud to live in Belarus.

The real treasure of Belarus is its wonderful nature. The country has hundreds of wild forests, rolling hills, green valleys, sweet-­scented meadows and golden fields. Beloveshzkaya Pushcha is the only place where you can meet mighty European bison in the wild. Belarus is also famous for its clear lakes and ribbon-­like rivers, that’s why it’s called a blue­-eyed one. The resorts of lakes Naroch and Braslav are open all year round and let tourists experience the unforgettable peaceful atmosphere.

I am proud of the rich heroic history of my country and its people. Although for many centuries we were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania1, the Polish ­Lithuanian Commonwelth2 and then the Russian Empire3 we have managed to stay united and haven’t lost our uniqueness. Many foreigners admit that our people are extremely sociable, hospitable, and generous and we are welcoming with visitors. We are also described as resourceful and peaceful. When socializing, Belarusians are open, warm­-hearted, fun­-loving, humorous and outgoing in spite of all the difficulties they face in their life.

Of course I’m proud of our national holidays and traditions, especially those which are deep-­rooted and typical of our nation such as Kalyady, Maslenitsa, Dazhynki. They are unique and make us stand out. Besides, they are of particular interest for tourists because they reflect our culture.

In conclusion, I’d like to say that I’m proud of my country and its people. Each time I go abroad I tell foreigners about our great past and achievements. Each time I leave the country I want to come back again, because I miss it. If I were a talented painter, I would start drawing pictures with its beautiful landscapes; if I could compose verses, I would write lyric poems about it. Belarus is the place where my heart will always belong to!


1 the Grand Duchy of Lithuania [ˈɡrænd ˈdʌtʃɪəvˌlɪθjʊˈeɪnɪə] Великое Княжество Литовское

2 the Polish­ Lithuanian Commonwelth [ˈpəʊlɪʃ ˌlɪθjʊˈeɪnɪən ˈkɒmənwelθ]   Речь Посполитая – федерация Королевства Польского и Великого Княжества Литовского

3 the Russian Empire [ˈrʌʃn ˈempaɪə]   Российская империя


  1. When did the author understand that he/she is proud of being Belarusian? Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What makes the author be proud of his/her Motherland?
  3. What would the author do if he/she were a creative person?


  1. Listen to the story about a girl and answer the questions below.


  1. Why was Whitney worried about going to college?
  2. How did she find a friend?
  3. What lesson did Whitney learn?


III. Let’s talk about accommodation.



№ 2

  1. 1.         Read the newspaper opinion column and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


UNESCO World Heritage1 List

Belarus joined UNESCO in 1954. For many years, Belarus has been building up fruitful and dynamic relations with international organizations. Belarus programme of UNESCO activities includes numerous interesting projects in the fields of education, science, information, communications, and, of course, culture. In October 1988, Belarus joined the Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Today four Belarusian sites have already been included into the UNESCO World Heritage List.

In 1992, the Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park, a natural heritage object and a unique European forest reserve which has been protected since the 14th century, was the first one to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In 2000, the Mir Castle Complex, which was built at the beginning of the 16th century, was also added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. The successful combination of Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance architecture2 makes Mir Castle one of Europe’s most impressive castles. In 2005, two more sites were included into the UNESCO World Heritage List. They are the Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwills in Nesvizh and the Struve Geodetic Arc points3.

For centuries the Nesvizh Palace used to be the residence of the Radziwills, one of the richest families in Europe. Today the National Historical and Cultural Museum ­Reserve Nesvizh is a wonderfully restored castle, which is visited by hundreds of tourists from all parts of the world. No wonder, it has become a landmark of Belarus.

The Struve Arc is a world famous construction. The same sorts of points are in ten countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova, all together 265 points. According to the historical data, there were 31 geodesic points in Belarus, and only 19 survived.

Belarus is going to propose to add Independence Avenue in Minsk for inclusion into the UNESCO World Heritage List as part of the Socialist Postwar Architecture in Central and Eastern Europe.                     


1 heritage [ˈheritidʒ]  культурное наследие

2 Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance architecture [ˈɡɒθɪk, bəˈrɒk, rɪˈneɪsəns ˈaːkɪtektʃə] архитектура готики, барокко и ренессанса

3 the Struve Geodetic Arc points [ˈstruːv ˌdʒiːəʊˈdetɪk ˈaːk ˈpɔɪnts] Геодезическая дуга Струве, представляющая собой цепь опорных пунктов наблюдения


  1. Belarus is a member of UNESCO. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. Which Belarusian sites are included on the list for protection?
  3. What other sites does the Belarusian government want to be on the UNESCO List?


  1. Listen to the career counsellor speaking about choosing a career and answer the questions below.
  2. Why is choosing the right job very important?
  3. Which jobs are popular among young people at present?
  4. What advice does the speaker give?


III. Let’s talk about the education.

№ 3

  1. 1.         Read the newspaper opinion column and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

My ideal school

My ideal secondary school is a safe haven1. It shouldn’t be a place you hate going to, but a place you enjoy attending. I believe it should be social, as well as educational experience. A school should always have a soul… there should always be laughter ringing through the corridors. (Angela, 15, Moscow)

My ideal school is a school quite unlike any school we’ve heard of. This school consists of a large library and basic recreational facilities. There are no classrooms. The school is built on the idea of active learning. No student is forced to learn. (Tanya, 14, Rome)

School is the mould2, which shapes our future. It’s where we spend most of our valuable time — childhood. Yet I know from firsthand experience that many aspects should be changed: the impersonal attitude of some teachers who do everything only for results, instead of creating happy moments and valuable life experience for young people. These young people are far from being an ‘empty pot’ who are ready to be filled with knowledge. They are simply locked boxes full of potential which should be discovered by caring and encouraging teachers. (Anna, 15, Riga)

Schools may be getting good results but they are not helping the students as individuals. It seems to me that it’s the learner who should ask questions. Give us the freedom to ask questions and do help us to find answers. Don’t you see we learn more from our experience and when people trust and respect us? We learn from our mistakes as well. (Hero Joy, 14, Kent)

I think differences make the world go around. Good teachers know it more than Maths rules. I think school must teach differences. And at the moment some schools are doing the opposite, trying to make everyone normal. (Kate, 13, London)

Schools should develop creativity and dreams. When schools teach people not to seek knowledge on their own, people become passive. Everybody has the right to be free and choose what to be and what not to be, schools do not give that option, they have a ‘well organised’ systematic life for you, in which you have to fit. (Luis, 15, Boston)

1 a safe haven [ˈheɪvn] надёжное, безопасное место

2 a mould [məʊld] матрица, шаблон

  1. One of the children says that school should have a soul. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What do the children want to change at school?
  3. Why do the children want more freedom?
  4. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.
  5. What is wrong with the accommodation?
  6. Why did the boy oversleep?
  7. What agreement did he reach with the person on Reception?

            III.       Let’s talk about the environment.



№ 4

  1. 1.         Read the part of a diary and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Anna’s diary


Writing in a diary is a really strange experience for someone like me. Not only because I’ve never written anything before, but also because it seems to me that later on neither I nor anyone else will be interested in the thoughts of a thirteen-­year-­old schoolgirl. Oh well, it doesn’t matter. I feel like writing, and I have an even greater need to get all kinds of things off my chest1.

“Paper has more patience than people.” I thought of this saying on one of those days when I was feeling a little depressed and was sitting at home with my chin in my hands. I was bored and wondering whether to stay in or go out. I finally stayed where I was and decided to start a diary. Yes, paper does have more patience, and since I’m not planning to let anyone else read this notebook, unless I should ever find a real friend, it probably won’t make a bit of difference.

Now I’m back to the point that prompted me to keep a diary in the first place: I don’t have a friend. Let me put it more clearly, since no one will believe that a thirteen­-year­-old girl is completely alone in the world. And I’m not. I have loving parents and a sixteen-­year-­old sister, and there are about thirty people I can call friends. I have a bunch of admirers who can’t keep their adoring eyes off me and who constantly try to catch a glimpse2 of me in the classroom. I have a family, loving aunts and a good home. No, on the surface I seem to have everything, except my one true friend.

All I think about when I’m with friends is having a good time. I can’t bring myself to talk about anything but ordinary everyday things. We don’t seem to be able to get closer, and that’s a problem. Maybe it’s my fault that we don’t trust each other. In any case, that’s just how things are. That’s why I started the diary.

To enhance3 the image of this long-­awaited friend in my imagination, I don’t want to write only about facts, but I want the diary to be my friend, and I am going to call this friend Kitty.

1 to get off one’s chest чистосердечно признаться в чем-либо, облегчить душу

2 to catch a glimpse [ɡlɪmps] увидеть (на мгновение)

3 to enhance [ɪnˈhaːns] усилить

  1. The author writes when she decided to keep a diary. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What close people did Anna have?
  3. Why did Anna start writing in a diary?
  4. Listen to Alice speaking about her first job and answer the questions below.
  5. What job did Alice do?
  6. What difficulties did she have?
  7. What kind of knowledge and skills did she get at her first job?

            III.       Let’s talk about Belarus.

№ 5

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Be kind and stay safe

Everybody knows that we should be polite and kind to people in real life and online. Unfortunately this doesn’t always happen. Where can you report online abuse1 or unkind messages to yourself or your friends? Do you know how to report and complain about harmful information online? For example, if you see an inappropriate tweet on Twitter you can click on ‘more’ and then choose ‘Report tweet’. You can then block all further tweets from that user.

Even celebrities can be cyberbullied2. Tom Daley, the British Olympic diver, was abused online. His father died during the 2012 Olympic Games and Tom received some very cruel tweets about his indifference towards his father’s health.

Here are our top tips for staying safe online:

  1. Be nice! Treat people online as you do in real life.
  2. Don’t post anything online that you wouldn’t want people in real life to see.
  3. Check your privacy and security settings on social media sites and keep them as private as possible. Make sure you know exactly who can see your posts.
  4. Don’t ever post personal information like your home address, your email or your phone number.
  5. If you see something online that worries or upsets you, tell an adult about it straight away.
  6. Take part in Safer Internet Day.

Safer Internet Day, or SID for short, tries to help people to use the Internet correctly. SID started in 2004 and is organised in February every year in 74 countries around the world to promote safe and responsible use of online technology and mobile phones. Each year there is a different topic such as cyberbullying or social networking. The focus for SID’s next campaign is “Let’s create a better internet together”. SID organisers want children and young people, parents and teachers, as well as businessmen and politicians to work together to build a better internet for all of us, but particularly for children.

There are special lessons prepared for school children on Safer Internet Day in Britain. You can find out about SID on this website: http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/.

1 abuse [əˈbjuːs] оскорбление

2 to be cyberbullied [ˈsaɪbəbʊlɪd] быть преследуемым в киберпространстве

  1. The journalist writes how to stop bad messages on Twitter. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What can we do to stay safe online?
  3. Why is SID a good way to stop abuse on the Internet?


  1. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.
  2. Where does the conversation take place?
  3. What is the man interested in?
  4. How much do you need to pay monthly?          

III.       Let’s talk about Great Britain.


№ 6

  1. 1.         Read the story and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Christmas Tree

Just before Christmas in 1944, a letter arrived at our house in Philadelphia. The postmark was from Tuskegee, Alabama, so we all knew who it was from. We excitedly gathered around Mother as she opened it.

My Dear Mother,

I did not get the leave I expected for Christmas. I will miss all of you. Please leave the Christmas tree up until I make it back. I hope to be home by March.

Love from your son,


I was 17 years old at the time. My heart sank. I felt a deep sadness that my favourite brother would not be home for Christmas. He was one of the Tuskegee Airmen1 and was responsible for maintaining2 the airplanes flying off to fight in World War II. My mother, being the (an) optimist, said, “Well, it looks like we’ll get to have two Christmases this year!” After Christmas, my sister and I worked together to make sure we kept that Christmas tree looking as pretty as possible. This was no easy feat.

By mid­January, the branches dropped so low to the ground that they became a sliding board for the decorations. Each day, ornaments would come crashing to the ground and there were new pine needles3 all over the wooden floor. My sister and I took turns sweeping them up. We moved the ornaments to the stronger branches on the tree, hoping they would stay on.

Each time we freshened that tree up, my sister and I were full of thoughts about Clifton and how happy we would be to see him again. It made us feel that he was close by, even though he was hundreds of miles away. On March 5, the doorbell rang. We ran to the door and gave Clifton a big hug. As he hugged Mother, I could see him looking over her head at the Christmas tree.

“It’s beautiful,” he said. “Thank you.” Clifton opened his presents and told us all sorts of stories about his work in Tuskegee. That night as we slept, we heard a crash in the living room. We all ran to see what had happened. The tree had toppled4 onto the sofa and there were needles and broken ornaments everywhere.

We all had a good laugh. It was fortunate that Clifton got home!


1 Tuskegee Airmen [tʌsˈkiːɡiːˈeəmən] пилоты из Таскиги

2 to maintain [meɪnˈteɪn] обслуживать, готовить

3 a pine needle [ˈpaɪnˌ niːdl] сосновая иголка

4 to topple [ˈtɒpl] опрокинуться, свалиться


  1. The family got a message from Clifton. Find the extract which says about it and read it aloud.
  2. What was Clifton’s job?
  3. Which facts show that all the family loved Clifton very much?


  1. Listen to three teenagers talking about homework and answer the questions below.
  2. Why does the first speaker dislike doing homework?
  3. What does the second speaker have regrets about?
  4. What are the benefits of doing homework according to the third speaker?


III.      Let’s talk about science and modern technologies.


№ 7

  1. 1.         Read the story and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


The Condemned Room1

Dear Mom,

I am working very hard on cleaning my room. But I want to go to Katy’s this afternoon to work on our Halloween costumes. Can I finish tomorrow? I would get up early and do it before breakfast and I’ll do a good job. Please, write back.

Love, The Prisoner in Tower # 3


Dear Prisoner, No.

Love, Mom.

For days Sam’s mother never came up to her room. And then one day Sam came home from school and found the Condemned sign on her door. Her mother had made the sign. It said: “The room is condemned. Its owner may not go anywhere or do anything until the area is restored”. In other words, Sam was to stay in until she cleaned her room.

It wasn’t fair. She was always getting the Condemned sign. Her brother hardly ever did. And his room was really disgusting, with posters of rock stars and basketball stars and movie stars wearing tiny bikinis covering every inch of his walls. But, her mother pointed out, his floor was clean and his desk as well. That was all she cared about.

Sam had been in her room for three hours now. She sat on the floor, looking at everything she was supposed to be putting away. It was possible she might be there all day. There were her clothes, lying high on her chair and overflowing onto the floor. Dirty shoes. An umbrella from when it rained on Tuesday. Library books. Magazines with pictures of cool teen-­movie stars that Rebecca had given her. Her piano music from yesterday’s lesson. And different little things: nail polish remover, cotton balls, a tennis-­ball, a note pad (notepad) from Katy, rocks from rock collection they were making for science, pencils, chewing gum. And about twelve dirty handkerchiefs.

The thing to do, Sam decided, was sort everything into piles. A pile of dirty laundry, a pile of her dresser drawers, a pile to throw away. That was how her father, the organization man, would do it. She sighed. It was impossible to imagine she couldn’t leave her room all weekend. She decided to paint her finger nails instead.


1 a condemned room [kənˈdemd ˈruːm] комната, признанная небезопасной для проживания


  1. The author tells us about her brother’s room. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What made Sam’s Mum write a message?
  3. Is Sam going to clean the room? Why do you think so?


  1. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.
  2. Where was Tina going to?
  3. What happened at the airport?
  4. Why was Tina scared during the flight?


  • Let’s talk about art.



№ 8

  1. 1.         Read the story and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Great grandad

It was a funny and surprising thing that brought Grandad back to me. It was algebra. I couldn’t cope with algebra in my first year at secondary school, and it made me mad. “I don’t see the point of it,” I screamed. “I don’t know what it’s for!”

Grandad, as it turned out, liked algebra and he sat opposite me and didn’t say anything for a while, considering my problem in that careful expressionless way of his.

Eventually he said, “Why do you do PE1 at school?”


“PE. Why do they make you do it?”

“Because they hate us?” I suggested.

“And the other reason?”

“To keep us fit, I suppose.”

“Physically fit, yes.”

He reached across the table and put the first two fingers of each hand on the sides of my head.

“There is also mental fitness, isn’t there? I can explain to you why algebra is useful. But that is not what algebra is really for.”

He moved his fingers gently on my head.

“It’s to keep what is in here healthy. PE is for the head. And the great thing is you can do it sitting down. Now, let us use these little puzzles here to take our brains for a jog2.”

And it worked. Not that I fell in love with algebra. But I did come to see that it was possible to enjoy it. Grandad taught me that maths signs and symbols were not just marks on paper. They were not flat. There (They) were three ­dimensional, and you could approach them from different directions. You could take them apart and put them together in a variety of shapes, like Lego. I stopped being afraid of them.

I didn’t know it at the time, of course, but those homework sessions helped me to discover my Grandad. Algebra turned out to be the key that opened the invisible door he lived behind and let me in.

Now I learnt that Grandad’s world was full of miracles and mazes3, mirrors and misleading signs. He was fascinated by riddles and codes and labyrinths4, by the origin of place names, by grammar, by slang, by jokes — although he never laughed at them — by anything that might mean something else. I discovered My Grandad.


1 PE [ˌpiːˈiː] физкультура

2 to take our brains for a jog [əˈdʒɒɡ] шевелить мозгами

3 a maze [meɪz]  путаница

4 a labyrinth [ˈlæbərɪnθ] лабиринт


  1. The author says she had problems with algebra. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. How did the girl’s Grandad help her understand the subject?
  3. What else did the author understand about her Granddad (Grandad)?


  1. Listen to the member of the Greenpeace organisation telling a story about whales and answer the questions below.
  2. How did Uncle Roger explain to the boy why the whales were on the beach?
  3. How did the people help them?
  4. How did this event affect the story-teller’s life?


            III.      Let’s talk about your future career.




№ 9

  1. 1.         Read the interview with a British businessman and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Journalist: Do people in your country depend a lot on technology for communication?

Businessman: Yes. Everybody’s using all kinds of phones, mobiles and Internet services. I think the benefits of the computers (computers) cannot be denied. They save valuable time and space. Time ­consuming tasks such as checking bank accounts can now be done in a matter of minutes and a large volume of information is economically stored on tiny disks. In addition, with immediate access to the Internet, we can always keep up with global and current issues and explore the world from the comfort of our homes.

Journalist: Do you manage to keep up with the development of technologies?

Businessman: I think the fact that methods in business have moved ahead at such speed has meant that we generally have to keep up with it all, whether we want to or not. Otherwise, we’ll be left behind. In fact this need to keep up has also entered the home, where a lot of people spend much money on computer equipment when all they do is play games.

Journalist: How different would everyday life be without technological means of communication?

Businessman: Of course, life would be very different without all these means of communication. For those working in the world of business, life would be much more difficult as it would take much longer to get in touch with other companies and to come to agreement on important matters. Basically, if we didn’t have email systems at home or mobile phones, etc., it wouldn’t be the end of the world. I mean, we survived before, didn’t we?

Journalist: How do you feel about mobile phones?

Businessman: I personally find them useful and necessary. They’re convenient if there’s an emergency on a business trip or when you’re in the middle of nowhere or need to contact the police or your family for example. Though, I do feel that they are overused in many cases. Think about how many people spend hours just chatting about silly, unimportant things or looking through sites for no special reason even at work.

  1. What are the benefits of the computers? Read aloud the extract which describes them.
  2. How do businessmen benefit from using technological means of communication at their workplace?
  3. When are technological means of communication misused?
  4. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.
  5. Where does the action take place?
  6. What happened to the furniture in the (--) grandmother’s room?
  7. Why were Martin and his friend scared?

            III.       Let’s talk about your family.



№ 10

  1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Building a successful family is like building a house. Both need a plan. The best way to be organised as a family is to talk about family matters. By doing this, families enjoy a special closeness and stability. Choosing to spend time with your family sends a message more powerful than words.

How much time should families spend together? That varies from family to family. Families with young children usually spend most of their time together because young children need a great deal of physical care and guidance. Families with teenagers may spend less time together because teens naturally want to spend more time with their friends. Healthy families keep a good balance between ‘too much’ and ‘not enough’ time together. They spend enough time to satisfy all family members.

Nothing unites a family more than its traditions which include different norms, ways of behavior, customs and views. In united families these traditions are deep-rooted and passed from generation to generation.

Strong families take time to be together and talk to one another. They share their hopes and dreams, feelings and concerns over common meals. Members of successful families feel they really belong to their family. They celebrate their victories and help each other learn from their mistakes. They do their household chores together and go to the theatre. At the same time, strong families adapt relationships and family rules when needs arise. Since no family knows what tomorrow will bring, being adaptive is a good trait for family members to develop.

Recent studies affirm the importance of love in families. Research shows that expressions of affection towards children reduce behaviour problems and help children’s development. Strong families notice and share positive aspects of each member. They notice the talents, skills and achievements, special qualities and characteristics that make the other person unique. They find ways to be positive even when another family member makes a mistake and make an effort to develop closeness and show love at home.


  1. The author explains what makes a successful family. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What makes a family united?
  3. How much time should family members spend together?
  4. Listen to the girl speaking about her eating habits and answer the questions below.
  5. What problem does the girl have?
  6. What makes the girl think that her habit is harmful?
  7. Why can’t she stop eating chocolate?

            III.       Let’s talk about youth and society.

№ 11

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Pythagoras is often described as a very important mathematician, yet we know little about his achievements. What we do know is that he was the leader of a society which was half scientific and half religious. It was a secret society and today Pythagoras is still a mysterious figure.

It is believed that Pythagoras was born on the Greek island of Samos. His father was a merchant, and as a child, Pythagoras travelled with him selling their goods. Pythagoras was well educated. He learned music and poetry and had three philosophers to teach him who introduced Pythagoras to mathematics and advised him to travel to Egypt to learn more about mathematics and astronomy. So in 535 BC, Pythagoras travelled to Egypt where he visited many temples and took part in discussions with priests. Many of the customs he learnt in Egypt he came to adopt. For example, the Egyptian priests refused to eat beans and wear animal skins, as did Pythagoras later in his life.

In 525 BC the King of Persia invaded Egypt. Pythagoras was taken prisoner and was transported to Babylon. It was here, taught by the Babylonians, that he reached perfection in arithmetic and music. When Pythagoras returned to Samos he founded there a school which was called ‘The Semicircle’. It seems that the people of Samos did not appreciate the teaching methods of Pythagoras and they treated him rudely and improperly. Furthermore, they wanted to involve Pythagoras in local politics against his will. For these reasons, he went to Italy.

Pythagoras believed that numbers rule the universe and that numbers are present in all things. He also connected mathematics to music and recognized the healing power of music. He used it as a kind of therapy to help those who were ill. Another of his beliefs was that there are three types of men: those who love wisdom, those who love honour and those who love wealth.

Pythagoras was a mathematician, an astronomer, and a philosopher. Today we remember him best for his famous geometry theorem, known as Pythagoras’ theorem.2

1 Pythagoras [paɪˈθæɡərəs] Пифагор

2 Pythagoras’ theorem [paɪˈθæɡərəsɪz ˈθɪərəm] теорема Пифагора

  1. Where did Pythagoras go to learn mathematics and astronomy? Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. Why did Pythagoras go to Italy?
  3. What are the three types of men according to Pythagoras?
  4. Listen to the interview with Mr Ron Cansler taken by the Youth Magazine and answer the questions below.
  5. How old is Mr Cansler?
  6. What kind of life did he have when he was young?
  7. What does he recommend listeners to do?

            III.       Let’s talk about the (--) mass media.


№ 12

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Possibly the most famous female pilot ever, Amelia Earhart was born in 1897 in Kansas, the USA. Amelia had a difficult and unsettled childhood. Her family travelled a great deal so her father could find work. Although she often missed school, Amelia was nevertheless considered to be very bright academically. She enjoyed reading and poetry as well as sports, especially basketball and tennis.

After graduating from high school, instead of going to college, Amelia decided to study nursing. During the First World War, she worked as a military nurse in Canada. When the war ended she became a social worker back in America and taught English to immigrants. In her free time, Amelia enjoyed going to air shows and watching aerial stunts1, which were very popular during the 1920s. Her fascination with flying began when, at one of those shows, she took a ten-­minute ride, and from that moment on she knew she had to learn to fly.

Amelia took on several odd jobs to pay for the flying lessons and after a year, she had saved enough money to buy her own plane. She organised cross­country air races for women pilots and formed a now famous women pilots’ organisation, called the ‘Ninety­Nines’. One day Amelia received an invitation to be the first woman ever to make the flight across the Atlantic from Canada to Britain. Amelia made the flight in 1928 and, although she was only a passenger and two men flew the plane, it made her a celebrity. She also met there her future husband, George Putman, a publisher, who arranged the flight and organised all the publicity.

In 1932 Amelia and George decided Amelia should make the Atlantic crossing from America to Britain alone. She broke several records on this flight; she became the first woman to fly the Atlantic solo, the only person to have flown it twice and she established a new transatlantic crossing record of 13 hours and 30 minutes. Understandably, she became even more famous as a result earning respect for women pilots all over the world by proving that women could fly as well as men, if not better.


1 an aerial stunt [ˈeərɪəl ˈstʌnt] фигура высшего пилотажа


  1. How did Amelia get interested in flying? Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. What invitation did Amelia receive one day?
  3. Why did Amelia become famous?


  1. Listen to the conversation between Nancy and her mum and answer the questions below.
  2. What do Nancy’s parents worry about?
  3. Why does Nancy refuse to do household chores?
  4. What arguments does Mum use to make Nancy clean the room?


III.      Let’s talk about the (--) mass media.



№ 13

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


In today’s modern world, people are constantly looking for ways to avoid stress and improve their lifestyle. Too much stress can lead to a variety of illnesses from headaches to high blood pressure. Simple things, such as driving to and from work on a daily basis, can be such a stressful experience that many people are left feeling totally exhausted. Cars can give normally peaceful people a feeling of power that can make them more aggressive.

Fortunately, there are various means of public transport to choose from within modern towns and cities. Sometimes, all we need to do is to change a few of our long­standing habits in order to discover a much more comfortable way of life. By simply planning journeys, not only can we save time and money, but we can also reduce stress levels dramatically. By using public transport everybody wins. Most towns and cities are well ­covered by bus, tram and metro services. While making use of these services, you are also helping against increasing levels of pollution.

Public transport systems have improved considerably in recent years and there is now more focus on environmentally friendly forms. For example, old tram systems have been reintroduced into many European cities, making movement across large areas much faster and ‘cleaner’.

Another way of reducing levels of both stress and pollution is an introduction of an environmentally friendly network of cycle tracks. The aim of building cycle tracks is to motivate people to use their bicycles instead of their cars. So, next time you see your neighbor or colleague waiting at a bus stop as you drive by, don’t feel sorry for him because he will, no doubt, arrive at the office much earlier than you as you will still be fighting to find a parking space.

Or you might consider another way of getting to work. Carpooling2 is a relatively new and convenient system when several people arrange to share one private car to get to work. And some companies have already introduced a plan where those who carpool get preferential parking in the company garage.

1 commuting [kəˈmjʊːtɪŋ] ежедневные поездки на работу в город из пригорода и обратно

2 to carpool [ˈkaːpuːl] ездить на одной машине, подвозить по очереди

  1. The network of public transport has improved lately. Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. How can we help reduce pollution?
  3. Why is carpooling convenient?


  1. Listen to the advice how to make a good friend and answer the questions below.
  2. How do people feel if they have no friend?
  3. What qualities does a good friend have?
  4. Why is it good to be a real friend?       

III.       Let’s talk about international cooperation.




№ 14

  1. Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


In April 2007, a 16 ­year ­old English boy named Charlie McDonnell was studying for his exams. But he was bored, so he turned on his computer and started surfing the web. He soon found a website called YouTube and within minutes he was watching a video of another teenager sitting in his bedroom and talking to his computer about how bored he was. ‘I could do better than that!’ thought Charlie. So, using a cheap computer and a webcam, he made his first video blog and posted it on YouTube under the name Charlieissocoollike.

A few days after the first video Charlie found that he had 150 subscribers. Encouraged by this, he went on to make more videos. A month later Charlie’s audience grew and he started to get hundreds of video messages from his fans. “It was really strange,” says Charlie. “I’d been talking to my computer for a month and suddenly my computer started talking back to me!”

His next big success came a few months later when Oprah Winfrey, the famous American TV host, showed one of Charlie’s comedy videos called How to be English on her programme, which made him popular in the USA too.

Charlie also realised he could use his fame to help people less fortunate than himself. To celebrate his 18th birthday, he raised £5,000 for cancer research. He raised four times as much when he co­presented a live show on the Internet. He stayed awake for 24 hours performing challenges from viewers. All the money went to the children’s charity UNICEF1.

But what is the secret of his popularity? “I just make videos that I would want to watch,” he says, “and I’m not trying to sell anything. I’m just trying to talk with people and that’s it for me.” His honesty and modesty are perhaps the main reasons why Charlie is so well liked. And of course, he is a talented song writer, camera man, actor and singer.

And if you were wondering how Charlie did in his exams back in 2007...well, he passed with nine A grades and one B! He says that he wants to go on to study at university in the future but decided to try and make a career on YouTube before that.

1UNICEF [ˈjuːnɪsef] Детский фонд ООН

  1. Charlie says how the idea of making a video crossed his mind. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. How did he become popular?
  3. Why do people like Charlie?


  1. Listen to Huan, a Chinese man, speaking about moving out and answer the questions below.
  2. Why do young people prefer to live with their parents in Hong Kong?
  3. How did Huan’s parents react to his decision?
  4. What are the advantages of living on your own?

III.       Let’s talk about national character and stereotypes.


№ 15

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Residential buildings are responsible for consuming 27% of the total amount of energy consumed within Europe and are the biggest source of global warming in the world. This is a fact that has, until recently, been overlooked by lawmakers trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, who have concentrated their efforts on industry and transport. The EU has now passed a new law which intends to cut considerably carbon dioxide emissions1 from buildings. This means that each of us can now save the planet from the comfort of our own homes.

The first things we can do are simple and easy. We can block up draughts2, switch off unnecessary lights and make sure cold and hot water taps are not left running. The next step requires more planning and some expense, but as well as saving energy, we will also save on bills. Many homes have window and roof insulation3 but it is rarely enough. Full insulation can have a dramatic effect on energy consumption. We should use energy efficient light bulbs. These are usually expensive to buy but consume less than half the energy of standard bulbs. These bulbs last much longer than conventional light bulbs reducing the consumption of resources. Also, thermal solar panels are very efficient. They are capable of providing all the hot water you need.

We can install a ‘grey’ water recycling system. At present water used to flush the toilets is of the same drinkable quality that comes out of the taps4. This is an unnecessary waste of energy used in water purification. A grey water recycling system cleans water that has been used for washing and sends it through the toilet system reducing the use of clean drinking water.

New buildings have more energy saving features in their design. They can have a wooden structure, extensive insulation, electronic environmental controls, triple glazing5, a non­polluting heating system and a turf6 roof. However, it is how we deal with our present homes that will determine housing’s contribution to global warming. It’s down to each of us, so get insulating!

1 carbon dioxide emissions [ˈkaːbən daɪˈɒkˈsaɪd  ɪˈmɪʃnz] выбросы углекислого газа

2 а draught [draːft] сквозняк

3 insulation [ˌɪnsjʊˈleɪʃn] изоляция, утепление

4 a tap [tæp] кран

5 glazing [ˈɡleɪzɪŋ] вставка стекoл

6 turf [tзːf] торф

  1. What energy saving features in the design of the building are used nowadays? Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. What can we do to cut carbon dioxide emissions from buildings?
  3. What is considered to be an unnecessary waste of energy used in water purification?
  4. Listen to the tour guide and answer the questions below.
  5. What sort of tour is it?
  6. What will the tourists see on the tour?
  7. Why does the tourist ask to return the money?

            III.       Let’s talk about outstanding people.



№ 16

  1. 1.         Read the extract and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Wemmick’s house was a little wooden cottage in the middle of a large garden. The top of the house had been built and painted like a battery loaded with guns. I said I really liked it. I think Wemmick’s house was the tiniest I had ever seen. It had very few windows and the door was almost too small to get in.

‘Look,’ said Wemmick, ‘after I have crossed this bridge, I raise it so that nobody can enter the Castle.’

The ‘bridge’ was a plank1 and it crossed a gap about four feet2 wide and two feet deep. But I enjoyed seeing the smile on Wemmick’s face and the pride with which he raised his bridge. The gun on the roof of the house, he told me, was fired every night at nine o’clock. I later heard it. Immediately, it made an impressive sound.

‘At the back,’ he said, ‘there are chickens, ducks, geese, and rabbits. I’ve also got my own little vegetable garden and I grow cucumbers. Wait until supper and you’ll see for yourself what kind of salad I can make. If the Castle is ever attacked, I will be able to survive for quite a while,’ he said with a smile, but at the same time seriously.

Then Wemmick showed me his collection of curiosities. They were mostly to do with being on the wrong side of the law: a pen with which a famous forgery3 had been committed, some locks of hair, several manuscript confessions written from prison.

‘I am my own engineer, my own carpenter, my own plumber and my own gardener. I am my own Jack of all Trades4,’ said Wemmick, receiving my compliments. Wemmick told me that it had taken many years to bring his property to this state of perfection.

 ‘Is it your own, Mr. Wemmick?’

‘Oh yes, I have got a hold of it a bit at a time. I have absolute ownership now. You know, the office is one thing, and private life is another. When I go to the office, I leave the Castle behind me, and when I come to the Castle, I leave the office behind me. If you don’t mind, I’d like you to do the same. I don’t want to talk about my home in a professional manner’.

1 plank [plæŋk] брус, доска

2 feet [fiːt] — мн. ч. от foot — мера длины, равная 30,48 см

3 а forgery [ˈfɒdʒərɪ] подделка документа

4 Jack of all Trades мастер на все руки

  1. ‘An Englishman’s home is his castle’. Read aloud the extract which proves this idea.
  2. What do we understand about Wemmick’s home life?
  3. Why does Wemmick call himself Jack of all Trades?
  4. Listen to a part of the interview with a thirteen-year old writer, Sally Myers, and answer the questions below.
  5. What made Sally write the book?
  6. What did Sally’s Dad think about the book?
  7. How did Sally’s life change after publishing the book?

            III.       Let’s talk about tourism.



№ 17

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Mother Teresa was a simple nun1. She never wanted to be famous, but everyone in the world knows who she is.

Mother Teresa was born in 1910 in what is now Macedonia2. She was the youngest of three children. Agnes’3 father died when she was a child. Her mother made dresses to support the family. Agnes’ mother also liked to do charity work, such as visiting the sick. Agnes often went with her, and she enjoyed helping these people.

Even as a child, Agnes wanted to be a nun. When she was 18 years old, she joined a group of nuns in India. There, she chose the name Teresa. Then she went to Calcutta to work at St. Mary’s School, in a convent4. Sister Teresa worked there for 20 years and eventually became the principal.

One day in 1946 Sister Teresa was riding on a train to Darjeeling5. She looked out of the window and saw dirty children wearing rags and sleeping in doorways. Sick and dying people were lying on dirty streets. At that moment, she believed God sent her a message. She decided to go to work with the poor.

Two years later, Sister Teresa left the convent and opened a school for the kids from poor families. Though at the very beginning the school had no roof, no walls, and no chairs, later it became well­known all around India. In 1948, Sister Teresa started her own group of nuns. They     were called the Missionaries of Charity. The nuns lived in the slums6 with people who were poor, dirty, and sick. It was hard work and the days were long. But many young nuns came from around the world to join Mother Teresa.

Later, she started homes for children without families. She also started clinics. Over the years, news of her work spread around the world. Many people sent her donations of money, others came to work with her. By 1990 the Missionaries of Charity were working in 400 centres around the world.

Mother Teresa got the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. But she always said her greatest reward was helping people. Her message to the world was: ‘We can do no great things — only small things with great love’.

1 a nun [nʌn] монахиня

2 Macedonia [ˌmæsəˈdəʊnɪə] Македония

3Agnes [ˈæɡnɪs] Агнес

4 a convent [ˈkɒnv(ə)nt] монастырь

5 Darjeeling [daːˈdʒiːlɪŋ] Дарджилинг (город)

6 slums трущобы

  1. The author writes about Mother Teresa’s family. Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. Why did Mother Teresa decide to devote her life to people in need?
  3. What did Mother Teresa do for people?
  4. Listen to the interview and answer the questions below.
  5. What does Jackie want to become?
  6. Why has she chosen this profession?
  7. Why is it important for students to do sport at school?

            III.       Let’s talk about accommodation.


№ 18

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

The most mystique1 picture

Every hour about 1,500 people visit the Louvre Museum in Paris with the specific intention of seeing one particular painting: the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Most of these visitors look at the painting for about three minutes before they walk back to the tourist buses outside.

Leonardo loved the painting very much and people say that he took it everywhere with him. The painting was originally ordered by a rich businessman in Florence, who wanted a portrait of his wife, Lisa. Leonardo began the painting in 1503 and he finished it about three or four years later. The fact that Leonardo wanted to keep the painting himself, adds to the Mona Lisa’s mystique.

Mona Lisa’s mysterious smile has fascinated everyone who has ever seen the painting. In his Lives of the Artists, written just a few years after Leonardo’s death, Giorgio Vasari wrote, ‘While painting Mona Lisa Leonardo employed singers and musicians to keep her happy and so avoid the sadness that painters usually give to portraits. As a result, there was a smile that seemed divine2 rather than human; and those who saw it were amazed to find how alive and real it appeared.’

Modern art critics also emphasise how the portrait seems alive and real. ‘She is like a living person,’ writes art historian E.H. Gombrich, ‘She seems to change before our eyes. Even in photographs (of the picture) we can experience this strange effect. Sometimes she seems to be looking down on us, and sometimes we can detect sadness in her smile. All this sounds rather mysterious, and it is; that is so often the effect of a great work of art.’

The Mona Lisa is certainly a masterpiece, a magnificent work of art, but it is also a part of modern popular culture. Her image appears on plates, T­shirts, mouse pads and in advertisements. Perhaps for this reason, officials at the Louvre Museum placed the painting in a specially built area in a room with other great 16th century Italian paintings. In this way, visitors have a better chance to appreciate the painting as a work of art rather than as a tourist attraction.

1 mystique [mɪˈstiːk] таинственный

2 divine [dɪˈvaɪn] божественный

  1. Why is Mona Lisa smiling? Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. What makes the Mona Lisa so special?
  3. Why is the painting displayed in an exceptional way?
  4. Listen to the conversation between two friends and answer the questions below.
  5. What does Christian want to become?
  6. Why does Kate need to learn English?
  7. What piece of advice does Christian give to his friend?

            III.       Let’s talk about your family.



№ 19

  1. 1.         Read the book review and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Book Review

The Guinness Books of World Records1 have certainly changed a lot in the last 60 years. The first Guinness Book was published in August 1955 in London, in Britain. Most editions were small paperbacks printed in black­and­white and contained more text than photographs. Now, there are colour pictures on every page — and the book also includes 3­D images.

This fascinating collection of records is divided into chapters on Space, The Living Planet, Being Human, Human Achievements, Spirit of Adventure, Modern Life, Science & Engineering, Entertainment, Sports, and the Gazetteer2.

Here you will see and read about extremes: for example, the world’s tallest, oldest, shortest, and tiniest — people, plants, animals, buildings. Some have set records for pulling buses, kissing, swimming, ironing clothes, running, and for having the longest legs, the smallest waist, etc.

Some images are a bit strange to look at for too long — check out the woman with the longest fingernails in the world. Also, one man had 14 operations to make himself look like a cat.

There’s a wide range of amazing facts contained on these pages. What is the world’s most expensive hamburger? — It is available in a New York restaurant for $120. Who had the most hit singles on the US music charts? — Elvis Presley, of course, with 151 between 1956 and 2003 (and he died in 1977!). One of the most colourful sections shows records related to space, including some fantastic photographs of Jupiter. Take a look at the top movies such as the first summer blockbuster of all time, the first movie with Dolby sound, and the first to be more expensive than $100 million.

As always, there’s a helpful index in the back of the book, in which you can find subjects of interest in alphabetical order.

Please note that some stunts3 in this book would be quite dangerous — or at least terribly painful — for you to attempt to meet or beat them. Therefore, please don’t attempt to set any world records that would cause risk to you or to others!

1 the Guinness [ˈɡɪnɪs] Books of World Records [ˈrekɔ:dz] Книга рекордов Гиннесса

2 Gazetteer [ˌɡæzəˈtɪə] географический справочник

3 a stunt [stʌnt] опасный трюк

  1. The author describes how The Guinness Books of World Records changed with time. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What information will you find in this book?
  3. Why can this book be interesting for the reader?
  4. Listen to the young man describing where he lived and answer the questions below.
  5. Why did the man’s family have to rent a flat for about a year?
  6. What was their flat in the capital like?
  7. How many people is he sharing the flat with at present?

            III.       Let’s talk about your future career.

№ 20

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Angela Rowlands recently tested her teenage children’s ability to do basic household jobs in the house. When Angela and her husband Ben went to Spain for a few weeks’ holiday on the Costa Brava, their son Mark, aged 18, and daughter Frances, aged 16, stayed at home to look after the house. The parents wanted to see how Mark and Frances would manage in the house on their own.

So when they left the house, they did not tell the children that they had prepared a few tests for them. “We took the plug1 off the microwave and took out some good light bulbs2 and put in light bulbs that did not work. We also made sure that there were other problems in the house: with an Italian coffee machine and one of the taps3 in the bathroom,” says Dr Rowlands.

When Dr Rowlands returned from her holiday, she found, as she had expected, that her children had failed the independence test. Mark and Frances had asked an electrician to change the plug on the microwave and to change the light bulbs. They also paid a specialist for repairing the bathroom tap. When they saw that the coffee maker was broken, they went to buy a new one. They even did not think to look for the missing part in the cupboard.

Dr Rowlands was not surprised by the results of her experiment. “A lot of young people today are not able to solve simple problems in the house,” she says. “They often throw things away when they are broken. This is wrong because it shows that young people do not understand how things work or are made. It can also be very expensive because you have to pay other people to do the work for you.”

But repairing broken things is only part of the problem. A lot of young people cannot cook at all. If there is no ready­made meal in the fridge, or if there is nothing to warm up in the microwave, then there is no food. This can cause health problems.

The truth is that many young people do not want to learn basic household skills as they find them boring. Though, if people want to be prepared for independent life they should learn how to do simple jobs about the house.

1 a plug [plʌɡ] штепсельная вилка

2 a light bulb [ˈlaɪt bʌlb] лампочка

3 a tap [tæp] кран

  1. Why did Dr Rowlands decide to test her children? Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. What did the parents prepare for their children?
  3. Do you think the children passed the test? Why do you think so?


  1. Listen to Tom speaking about his day off and answer the questions below.
  2. How did Tom spend his day off?
  3. What went wrong?
  4. What made Tom feel frightened?        


III.       Let’s talk about Belarus.

№ 21

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


Technology is everywhere. We see it any place we go to and, in fact, almost all of us carry some piece of technology with us every time we leave the house. We can’t imagine our life without them. But what we always forget, though, is just how useful and powerful technology can be when we want to help others.

There is not a single room in my house that does not have some gadget lying around in it. Whenever I am at home, providing that I am not sleeping, I am almost always using at least one electronic device. If you walked into my living room on any given day, you would find that, first, I have the television on (along with the other related appliances, such as the DVD player or my current favourite games console1). At the same time, even though multi­tasking is definitely not my strong point, I usually have my laptop resting on my knee, or I will be using my tablet or mobile phone. In the background, the technology that I am not using will most likely be on charge somewhere in the house. Even when I’m not at home I am constantly using my phone. At work or in cafés, I sit down and connect to the local wireless network on my laptop. I must admit that I waste a lot of time on the computer. Instead I could spend it doing some online volunteering.

The technology we carry about everywhere can have a great power to do good for the world and to help others and recently I discovered just how much online volunteering there is to do in the world. From using your language skills to do translations, to developing and managing projects and helping with IT work, there is so much that so many people can do to help people in their own countries and across the world. The United Nations, in fact, has a huge page on its website designed for recruiting volunteers.

This work can support the poor and help charities who otherwise would not have the funding to pay for staff. Many organisations only require you to work an hour a week — some even less. And the support provided by online volunteers can really help make a difference to those in need.

1 games console [ˈɡeɪmz  ˈkɒnˈsəʊl] игровая приставка

  1. The author disapproves of the way people use electronic devices. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What electronic devices does the author often use?
  3. How can online volunteering help people?
  4. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions below.
  5. What is the flat like?
  6. What do Anna and Carlos like and dislike about the flat?
  7. What have they decided to do?

            III.       Let’s talk about any Enlglish-speaking  country.

№ 22

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

From librarian to political reporter

The Pretenders is a very successful and popular TV series. In each programme there is a contestant who has just four weeks to learn to do a completely new job. At the end of the month the contestant has to do a ‘test’, where he or she has to do the new job together with three other professionals. Three judges have to identify the one who pretends.

Jessica Winters is a 26­year­old librarian. She studied English Literature at the University of Bath before getting a job at the local library. She didn’t know that two of her friends had sent her name to the TV company to take part in The Pretenders. ‘When someone from the company called me, I thought it was a joke,’ said Jessica. ‘First of all, I said ‘no’, in the end my friends and my family persuaded1 me and I agreed.’

Jessica had four weeks to turn from a quiet, shy librarian into a confident TV reporter. At the end of the month she had to interview the Minister of Education. It was her test.

An experienced political journalist, Adam Bowles, had to transform Jessica into a professional. He wasn’t very optimistic when he met her. ‘Jessica needs to be a lot harder, even aggressive. She is much too sweet and shy’, said Adam. ‘Politicians will eat her alive.’ They had just 28 days to teach her how to interview people, how to be confident, how to speak clearly.

Jessica was terrified at the beginning. She watched a lot of live interviews with politicians. Adam made her read the political sections of all the newspapers. It was boring for her and she felt exhausted. Later as soon as she began making progress, she felt more relaxed.

During the interview Jessica felt nervous but well­prepared as she had done much research and had practised a lot. ‘When it was all over, came the worst part, I had to wait while the judges decided which of us they thought wasn’t a professional’. The judges gave their verdict: they were all professional reporters.

For Jessica it was a great experience and she was pleased how she did it, but actually she doesn’t feel like changing her work.

1 to persuade [pəˈsweɪd] убедить

  1. The Pretenders is a famous TV programme. Read aloud the extract about it.
  2. How did Jessica make it into the programme?
  3. Why was it an exciting and useful experience for Jessica?


  1. Listen to three people talking about their favourite countries and answer the questions below.
  2. What country does the first speaker like most?
  3. What makes Italy a favourite place for the second speaker?
  4. Why does the third speaker like Argentina?

            III.       Let’s talk about national character and stereotypes.



№ 23

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.

Mi Luna

Mi Luna is a restaurant in the Rice Village. The atmosphere is lively, and the food is delicious. It is a Spanish cuisine restaurant that you will soon consider one of your favourite restaurants.

There are many reasons why this restaurant is special. One is that they make a wonderful dish called Pulpo con Patatas. It’s a delicious Spanish seafood dish which has the following ingredients: octopus, potatoes, salt, olive oil, and chilepiquin. (Chilepiquin is a special kind of chili that looks like red powder and is very hot.)

Another reason is the place itself. Once you are in the restaurant, you feel a Spanish atmosphere; it is painted with the classical colours that are used in Spain — red, yellow, white, and black. The way this place is decorated is really very impressive. On the walls, there are photos of Spanish bullfighters, taken at the perfect moments of their performances.

On one of the walls, you can enjoy a photo of the famous classical Spanish dance called Flamenco1. In it, the dancers are wearing the traditional clothes, and the lady has in her hands the most famous Spanish musical instrument called castanets2.

The service is pleasant, caring and quick. It makes you want to come back. The waiters just keep looking at your table to find out if you need something. If they see an empty glass, they immediately ask you if you want something else to drink. At all time, they are friendly and ready to clear all the used dishes from your table. They are always smiling because they are trying to make you feel comfortable and happy. They know each dish, so they are able to explain it to you.

On their menu, they serve a large variety of foods, and there is a section on the menu that I like most. In Spain, these dishes are called tapas3. Tapas or appetizers are dishes that have a small amount of food. In this way you will be able to try a lot of different Spanish dishes.

By the time you leave Mi Luna, you are sure to be entirely satisfied and have very good memories of the visit. It is a great place for any occasion, but it is very busy, so don’t forget to book a table first.

1 Flamenco  [fləˈmeŋkəʊ] фламенко (испанский танец)

2 castanets [ˌkæstəˈnets] кастаньеты (традиционный испанский ударный музыкальный инструмент)

3 tapas [ˈtæpəs] тапас (закуска)

  1. The service in Mi Luna is very good. Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. What makes Mi Luna look very Spanish?
  3. Why should visitors make reservations in Mi Luna in advance?
  4. Listen to the conversation between two friends and answer the questions below.
  5. What does Margaret complain about?
  6. Why does Peter need new clothes?
  7. What piece of advice does Margaret give to her friend?

            III.       Let’s talk about youth and society.

№ 24

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


If you belong to the older generation, Elderhostel is a good place to live.

Elderhostel, founded in 1975, is the world’s largest educational and travel organisation for older adults. Its aim is to excite people’s minds and enrich people’s lives promoting and encouraging different activities among the older generation. There are no examinations or marks. All that you need, in order to enroll on a programme, is enquiring mind1 and an adventurous spirit. Also, of course, you need to believe that learning and discovery continue all your life. There are expert instructors and experienced group leaders for field trips and cultural excursions.

Elderhostel offers a large number of programmes in a huge variety of areas. Amongst other things, it provides simple, online information on activities and services. First of all, there are traditional programmes. Here, people study ancient history, literature, and art, and can learn about different cultures, modern people and issues.

Also, Elderhostel believes that physical activity helps people to keep a positive self­image and contributes to the sense of well­being both mental and physical. Many programmes have keep­fit equipment and a large number of social and cultural events take place there, as well as sporting activities. Regular physical activity can prevent many common illnesses, such as high blood pressure and asthma and it helps people who already have such illnesses. Alongside the usual sports like swimming, hockey and cricket, bowling and tennis, you will find “Dog Clubs” and “Flying Clubs”. Then there is a group of adventure programmes involving activities like hiking, kayaking2, biking and studying whales.

There are also programmes which give people the chance to help communities in different ways, such as protecting endangered species, tutoring school children and building affordable housing.

Finally, there are programmes which take place aboard a boat, anywhere from Antarctic to the Mississippi River.

The word ‘old’ has a very different and very positive meaning in Elderhostel!

1 enquiring mind [ɪnˈkwaəɪrɪŋ  maɪnd] пытливый, проницательный ум

2 a kayak [ˈkaɪæk] каяк (лодка)

  1. What kind of organisation is Elderhostel? Read aloud the extract which says about it.
  2. What activities does Elderhostel offer?
  3. Why does the word ‘old’ have a positive meaning in Elderhostel?


  1. Listen to three people speaking about how they met their partners and answer the questions below.
  2. Why was the first speaker surprised?
  3. When did the second speaker ask the girl out?
  4. Why did the third speaker think that the girl was awful when they first met?

            III.       Let’s talk about education.

№ 25

  1. 1.         Read the article and say in 2—3 sentences what it is about.


The Internet nowadays is like a huge city full of many different kinds of places and people. As in a real city, there are certain places which are suitable for youngsters and others which need to be avoided.

The Internet neither belongs to nor is controlled by any one person, organisation or government. It gives all of us the opportunity to create materials for others to see. On the other hand, as in ordinary life, there are those who might use it for illegal purposes. The freedom of the Net offers exciting opportunities for youngsters and, by being aware of the possible dangers and taking steps to avoid them, they can happily explore that online world in safety.

The Internet has enabled and advanced new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Common sense will certainly help children to use the Internet safely. It is preferable, for example, for parents to get to know who their children are meeting online and make sure they never give out personal information about themselves. Although it is an excellent tool for learning, playing and communicating with others, youngsters should not be allowed to become so involved that they forget other activities important to their development. How often do we hear of youngsters spending all their free time in front of the computer, isolating themselves from other people their age? Computers are admirable tools that improve the quality of life, but when used sensibly. Steve Jobs said: “Technology is nothing. What’s important is that you have a faith in people, that they’re basically good and smart, and if you give them tools, they’ll do wonderful things with them”. Obviously, surfing as a family activity is the best solution, so that any problems that are found can be discussed together.

Parents need to think about safety issues and agree on a set of rules. Just as youngsters are given instructions on road safety, they also need to be instructed on how to travel safely along that superhighway.

  1. The author says that the Internet offers exciting opportunities for youngsters. Find this extract and read it aloud.
  2. What is surfing the Internet compared to?
  3. Why is it important to use the Internet sensibly?
  4. Listen to three people speaking about their work-life balance and answer the questions below.
  5. What does the first speaker complain about?
  6. How has the life style of the second speaker changed?
  7. What does the third speaker think about his way of life and the typical Japanese work-life balance?

            III.       Let’s talk about tourism.


Готовимся к экзамену по математике

Выпускной экзамен по математике представляет собой контрольную работу из десяти заданий в двух вариантах. На каждый из пяти уровней сложности приходится по две задачи. Все задания составлены строго по школьной программе. Министерство образования предлагает варианты стандартной и повышенной сложности. Все задания берутся из «Сборника заданий для выпускного экзамена по учебному предмету „Математика“ за период обучения и воспитания на III ступени общего среднего образования» издательства «Национальный институт образования».



Готовимся к изложению